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سینما اندیشه 3 - بیوگرافی کاستا گاوراس costa gavras

سینما اندیشه 3

زندگینامه کارگردانهای شاخص

 

بیوگرافی کاستا گاوراس costa gavras

 

نوع مطلب :کاستا گاوراس ،

نوشته شده توسط:سینما اندیشه 3

 

 

بیوگرافی کاستا گاوراس costa gavras

کوستا گاوراس (کوتاه شده کنستانتینوس گاوراس،  متولد ۱۳ فوریه ۱۹۳۳ کارگردان یونانی‌تبار فرانسوی است.


 

زندگی و حرفه

او فعالیت‌های سیاسی خود را از کودکی آغاز کرد و آن را از پدر به ارث برد. پدرش یک ارتشی یونانی بود.که در برابرهجوم ارتش نازی مقاومت کرد ولی پس از جنگ دولت یونان گاوراس را به اتهام کمونیست بودن از کشور تبعید کرد.

او در ابتدا تمایل داشت که به امریکا برود و در آنجا سینما بخواند. ولی به دلیل کمونیست بودن مک کارتیسم امریکا از پذیرش او سرباز زد. گاوراس به فرانسه رفت و در سوربن ادبیات خواند و به عنوان دستیار کارگردان با بسیاری از فیلم سازان فرانسوی همکاری نمود.

او در اولین تجربه خود با نام «قتل ماشین خواب ۱۹۶۶» از تکنیک‌های خاص کارگردانی که دوستش داشت یعنی رنوارودمی استفاده نمود که بیشتر به تعریف داستان فیلم توجه کرد تا به دغدغه فرم.

پس از حکومت نظامیان بر کشور گاوراس تمرکز خود را بر وقایع کشور مادریش قرار داد و فیلم سینمایی «زد» را در سال ۱۹۶۹ کارگردانی کرد. این فیلم اشاره به قتل گریگوری لمبراکیس نماینده چپ‌گرای پارلمان یونان دارد که در ۱۹۶۳ به دست نیروهای راست‌گرا در یونان صورت گرفت.

از دیگر آثار گاوراس «اعتراف» (۱۹۷۰) درباره زندان‌های پشت دیوار آهنین، «حکومت نظامی» (۱۹۷۳) درباره مبارزات گروه‌های ضد امریکایی اروگوئه، «گمشده» (۱۹۸۲) در مورد کودتای ژنرال پینوشه در شیلی، «هاناک» (۱۹۸۳) در مورد جنایات اسرائیل، «جعبه موسیقی» (۱۹۸۹) بر محور حضور جنایتکاران نازی در امریکا و «آمین» (۲۰۰۳) در مورد روابط نازی‌ها با واتیکان موجب شدند که فیلم‌های کمتر سیاسی او از قبیل «شهر دیوانه» (۱۹۹۷) چندان به چشم نیایند.

فیلم «بهشت غرب» (Eden Is West) نام تازه‌ترین اثر «کوستا گاوراس» است که بعد از ساخت فیلم «ساطور» در سال ۲۰۰۵، تاکنون فیلمی نساخته بود. محور اصلی فیلم «بهشت غرب» مسئله (مهاجرت) است. فیلمنامه این اثر را خود «گاوراس» با همکاری «ژان کلود گرومبرگ» نوشته‌است. و بازیگر اصلی فیلم «ریکاردو اسکامارچیو» نام دارد که یک ایتالیایی است. این فیلم ابتدا در تاریخ ۱۱ فوریه ۲۰۰۹ (۲۳ بهمن ۱۳۸۷) در فرانسه به نمایش درخواهد آمد.

 

منبع:ویکی پدیا

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